John Kincaid delivered the keynote address at an international conference on “Changing Federal Constitutions—Lessons Learnt from International Comparison” held in the Bundesrat in Berlin, Germany, on February 24-25, 2011. The Bundesrat, which gave unusual access to its chamber for the conference, is Germany’s upper house. It is similar to the U.S. Senate because it represents the Länder, which are the constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Kincaid spoke on “The Relevance of Constitutional Reform in Federal Systems: Comparative Perspectives.” The conference was attended by members of the Bundesrat, other public officials from Germany, Europe, and Pakistan, and scholars from twelve countries. The event was co-sponsored by the Bundesrat, Forum of Federations, Technische Universität Darmstadt, and FernUniversität in Hagen.